Head: The part where the tuning keys attach.
Tuning Keys: 6 post, gear and knob mechanisms that tighten or loosen the strings used to tune the guitar.
Nut: Usually plastic or a synthetic bone at the head end of the neck. It has grooves in it to hold the strings apart and above the fretboard enough to let vibrating strings ring free.
Neck: The long skinny part, on the front side is the fretboard. The back side is rounded for comfort.
Fretboard: The front side of the neck with Frets mounted at specific points used to play different notes and chords.
Frets: Wire strips embedded across the neck at specific points used to play different notes and chords. When a finger pushes a string just behind one of these frets, it takes the place of the nut, shortening the string, allowing the string to ring free.
Body: The large end of the guitar which either gives the guitar it’s resonance, or holds the electronics.
Sound Board: The front of the body on an acoustic guitar. This functions as the speaker cone of the guitar. Solid wood resonates better and sounds better than laminate aka plywood.
Sound Hole: This functions as a port on a speaker, allowing the soundboard to move more freely and the bass to resonate a little more.
Bridge: The part where the strings attach to the body.
Saddle: Usually made out of plastic or synthetic bone on acoustic guitars. It has grooves in it for the strings and holds the strings just above the fretboard on the body end, allowing the strings to ring free. The saddle transmits the vibrations to the soundboard which makes most of the sound you hear. On an electric guitar, the Saddles are made out of metal and are usually adjustable.
Pick Ups: Electric components, made of magnets and coils of wire. When the string vibrates, it changes the magnetic field around the coils which induce electron flow in the coils. Those electrons are routed out through a cable to an amplifier where most of the sound you hear is produced.
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